Taxonomy Accordion in Drupal

The open source community at Drupal is  quickly catching up on how to use its taxonomy module.  The latest code module  creates a Taxonomy Accordion— aka faceted navigation.  What Taxonomy Accordion shares with faceted navigation is good.  A taxonomy accordion lets a user know at a glance what a website is about, and how to find information, and also what won’t be found.

A Taxonomy Accordion does more than a faceted navigation (plus Taxonomy Accordion is a great name):

  • Using color and shade, you can graduate the color display so parent terms have one shade and the children have another shade
  • Hierarchies close and expand hierarchies much like a venetian blind or elegant fan
  • Has modular code that can be integrated as a part of Drupal Taxonomy module

But, as with other open source,  there is a requirement to plan and invest in the work that goes on  “under the covers.” Here are some of the dirty little secrets – the “work” that tune a  taxonomy accordion or any faceted navigation:

  • Pay attention user-centered design and validation: The fundamental choices of categories has to make sense to users.  Even if you make up an initial set of categories, use a validation process to ensure that the taxonomy makes sense to users.  Validation is a two-step process.  Part one is an open process, sometimes called an open card sort, where terms are collected from users, content, and sources, and then organized into a draft of the taxonomy. The second part of the process is closed, users are asked to find content using the navigation scheme to test whether the classes and hierarchy are useful or need to be refined.  More importantly, by using a validation process and making it part of the plan, you become more user aware and attentive to user needs.
  • Use this opportunity to improve tagging and metadata management: Content has to be tagged with terms from the taxonomy so you need a back-end business process and metadata eg database design to store the tags and pointers to associated content.  This backend metadata record can also help in creating an optimized your search engine especially an engine that supports faceted search such as SOLR.
  • Understand restrictions and attributes: Some facets are not larger super-classes, but are attributes (sometimes also called “slot facets” or “datatype properties”)  that are used to restrict  or narrow search.  These restrictions in an ecommerce application might be facets size as “Measurement, Color,  Availability.”    In a content or digital asset application, the restrictions might be “Content Type, Publication Date, Format.”    By grouping these terms, it helps to reduce permutations and complexity in interface design and in writing queries.
  • Foster distributed environments  and local control: This is hard to understand, but the faceted design is not authoritarian.  If the faceted design is based on user needs and a validation process, than it is likely to reflect shared values.   It still allows local organizations to develop and manage their information; it makes it easier to map that information to process and workflow.   For example,  a music company might have all its artists map  their music to shared facets such as genre.   A local social service agency might be asked to map its services to a common public service metadata scheme.  Allowing local agencies to update their metadata,  tag content, and suggest terms for taxonomy is a great way to identify user needs and changing requirements.
  • Change and Improve: Once categories are established, a change management process needs to be in place to monitor user queries to make sure that the categories and terms remain current and useful.   Setting baseline thresholds —  vital statistics —  (to be discussed in next month’s post) —  can help in recognizing changing markets, technologies or user needs.

An open source faceted navigation should allow implementation at a lower cost. Even with an Open Source solution like Drupal, which offers flexible options,  it  pays to invest some attention to understanding taxonomy business process because it will lead to more efficient implementation and efficient backend process.

The Return of Investment (ROI) justification  include not only user interface improvements (reduced clicks to right content) but also programming cost efficiencies such as  more simplicity in writing backend queries – great ROI justifications for the work. Validation work segues with the work of marketing and customer relations, so consider integrating taxonomy validation and governance into existing work processes.   Some organizations roll taxonomy management into a knowledge management function which oversees the entire process from organizing knowledge categories, managing content acquisition, and monitor.

Drupal’s development community has some very sophisticated features that will be available in the upcoming years including ways to visualize and cluster linked data, using RDFa.   Developing faceted navigation and taxonomies is a great way to get ready for an exciting future of visually interesting interfaces that better help users find and share information in complex organizations.

Don’t let the simplicity of the Taxonomy Accordion fool you.   Use the accordion as  an opportunity to understand user needs, how users look for information, and making underlying production, tagging and databases more efficient and focused  on user needs and high quality information.

~ Marlene Rockmore

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The Right Prescription for a Crowd-source Experiment

My last post was an experiment in using remote online card sorting as a way to build a taxonomy.  And why start small.  My sample data was the picklist used on www.medicare.gov when you  search on “What does Medicare Cover?”   For my experiment, I used websort.net. as the remote card sorting tool.

First, let’s start with the good news.  Online tools are basically very cool way to bring together remote groups where it would be too expensive or politically impossible to connect.  That’s the promise.

But to have a successful  remote card sort requires  preliminary planning and work.   Here are my lessons learned:

  • Keep the test under 20 minutes: Online card sorting is a time-consuming task for the participant, so for the experiment to be successful,  you need to make sure that participants have the time and that the number of terms to be sorted are not overwhelming. Joseph Busch of Taxonomy Strategies and Dave Cooksey, saturdave.com suggest 20 minutes/25 terms at most.  My comprehensive test  of all 132 picklist terms from the Medicare site was too big.
  • Pretest the taxonomy: Since the card-sorting activity is a one-time opportunity to  engage testers , some prior testing of the taxonomy should occur.  Remote card sorting is better for closed experiment where a taxonomy has been designed, rather than an open card sort where the goal is to discover categories and facets.   The best practice recommendation is to run some prior tests of the taxonomy before that online experiment.  Have a trusted expert do the test, and then throw away obvious problems.  If the pre-test doesn’t go well,  try again.   Testers in an online setting have a low tolerance for obvious problems, so the test needs to  about validating  a good design.
  • Choose online tools carefully: The tool I used, websort.net, had a major problem.  It only allowed a term to be classified under one and only category.  This proved frustrating to users. For example, users wanted to classify durable medical equipment under the category for Equipment but also under the category for the Disease or Chronic Condition.   Dave Cooksey, who tracks tools, says remote tools are improving all the time  — so evaluate tools and choose wisely.
  • Be sure to thank the participants: We all feel manipulated by many of the group activities we attend in the face-to-face world, and that can happen in the remote world as well.   Being authentic and courteous is important. Provide a thank you and be sure to share results or feedback.  If possible, consider some kind of compensation such as a gift card.

So given that a test that seems so simple on the surface requires work to set up, what is the value of this work. The purpose of a taxonomy is to determine top level facets that can be used to organize and search for information.  If we look at a topic like Medicare, we know that we have a national problem determining standards for insurance policies.  It is difficult to compare policies, and it is also time-consuming to manage the costsIn designing good remote crowdsourced  card sorting tests, Dave and Joseph have the following recommendations

  • Pay attention to the sample size
  • Recruit carefully to be sure the sample has balance of perspectives
  • Run tests prior to online activity. Have experts try the test.
  • Remember the goal of a taxonomytest is to find the higher level categories that overlap between the technical expertise and general understanding.
  • The result is a better analysis of shared group understanding – shared mental models of how we collectively categorize concepts,  not individual understanding

In the scheme of a trillion dollar problem like health care, a project to set up  well-designed remote cards sorts that can compare how different user groups sort fundamental medicare concepts seems like a small investment.   A well-run test with a good recruitment could be a very good way to jumpstart better designs of  websites such as Medicare  that deliver  clearer information about benefits and choices.

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Using Taxonomies to Sort through Health Care Reform

I am very interested in the health care reform debate, thus I wanted to know what a public option might look like. I was told by my sources that a robust public option might look a bit like Medicare. So off I went to the Medicare.gov website to find out what was covered.   In the middle of the home page in the second column, there is  a link to ‘Find Out What is Covered, ” which leads to an advanced search criteria page. The search page  includes picklist of about 143 topics,  just the right size for a sample set of candidate terms  for a card sort.

This month, I am offering a small interactive experiment in online card sorting.   Taxonomies are collections of facets, which are created by organizing concepts into categories.  Card sorting is one of the best ways to identify categories by having controlled tests with groups of users to create categories, that can be validated through repeated tests, until there a consensus.  In health care reform, taxonomies might be useful to help create consumer-friendly interfaces to help search across the national insurance exchanges.

A card sort method uses the following steps:

  • Collect a sample set of candidate concepts
  • Group or cluster terms into categories
  • Refine the design iteratively until there is a set of facets, groups of categories that have similar properties

I’ve put 130+  topics from Medicare into an online card sorting tool called Websort.net.  The topics have not been formatted or massaged; they are just as they appear the Medicare search picklist.   Websort.net suggests  that I use a closed card sort,  where participants sort terms into predetermined categories. So to get  started,   I’ve come up with about 20 starter categories.   Some of these categories will become subtopics in a faceted design

The experiment is open to the first 10 participants who want to take the time to try this task.   To try the card sort, link to

http://websort.net/s/80CDD6/

Please feel free to assign terms to multiple categories or to suggest other categories.

Last month, Joseph Busch blogged about the judicious use of online web sorting tools – that they may not be the most cost-effective way to build taxonomies. One of his arguments is that the sample set of users will not be random. That’s true. This blog has a small readership who have interest in taxonomies, and probably have a consumer’s interest in health care reform. Let me know what you think of websort.net.

This little experiment could help demonstrate some bigger observations. Government may be looking to advanced high volumentechnologies such as clustering or semantic technologies to identify categories and to map claims data.   Perhaps one of the applications will be  to build interfaces that will help consumers search across the national exchanges.  But at the core of these technologies, there will be a need for well-designed taxonomies to help analyze text and building better interfaces to access health care information.

A well-designed taxonomy with facets and linking relationships can

  • Group information into useful categories
  • Identify gaps in coverage
  • Help point to important related information

Let’s find out if taxonomy design can help us sort through health care reform.

Thanks to Andy Oram and the Sunlight Foundation for introducing me to this tool and to Dave Cooksey who is virtually updating my card-sorting skills.